Torpeda "Physicist": secretive and extremely dangerous

Weapon made a submarine with a full-fledged martial vehicle, there was a torpedo. It was the torpedoes that allowed the tiny five-hundred-catton submarine U-9 with archaic kerosene engines (like Kerogazami, only gasified fuel did not in the burner, but in the gas engine OTTO) send on September 22, 1914 to the bottom of the three British armored cruisers with displacement of 36,000 tons – HMS Aboukir, Cressy, Hogue. The losses of the Royal Fleet – 1459 people – almost equal to losses at the traffalgar.

The price of a dense environment

And submarine, and torpedoes work in an environment with a density of a thousand times higher than the air – in water. It was the water that made a tiny underwater boat invisible, which made it possible to approach the remote shot, without fear of the fire of numerous guns of British armored giants.

Nevertheless, water with its high density provided an impressive striking ability, which 123-kilogram warheads of 45-centimeter torpedoes demonstrated on very durable buildings of British cruisers. Explosion in water is much destructive an explosion in the air. Yes, and underwater space, in which water flows, a lot of terrible surface, drupted by air.


But for everything – including for secrecy, ensured by the density of the medium – it is necessary to pay. Primarily the cost of energy consumed to overcome water resistance. It was extremely low, compared with the shells of artillery guns, the speed of the torpedo. In those C45 / 06, which was armed with U-9, there were 26 nodes with a range of 3000 m and 34.5 nodes with a firing range of 1500 m. In addition, in a dense medium, any deflecting point – the asymmetry of the case, the thrust of the screw, the shock of the wave – will unsubscribe a stronger impact than in the air.

So from the very beginning, the torpedo weapons were weapon if not managed, then stabilized. Gyroscopic device Overseas with steering machines and horizontal steering wheels did not allow torpedo to get away from the course. Measuring water pressure hydrostats, driving vertical steering, held a torpedo at a given depth, without giving it to dump deep, passing under the bottom of the target, or jump out on the surface. Similar features – Stabilization on the trajectory – Jet shells of the Tornado complex received only in the 1970s, when it took to raise the RSZO shooting range with acceptable scattering up to 70 km. Such is the difference in the properties of water and air.


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