Torpedo Solution: Big Ship – Large Compressors
In pursuit of speed and less fuel consumption of large cargo ships are forced to fight three major enemies. When moving, the vessel forms a diverging waves in front of him, and the "natural" energy costs of their education increase in proportion to the square of its speed. Partly, this problem is solved using the competent rules of the nasal part of the ship. The second difficulty lies in the fact that the water pressure is lower than before the nose – the ship condenses the dissected fluid, after which it converges in a more sparse form behind it. The resulting pressure difference generates strength that pulls the ship back. However, this negative effect can be leveled by making the ship longer and giving it a more streamlined form.
Finally, the third problem is the viscosity of the water: when the body moves through it, friction occurs, directly proportional to its speed and surface area. To reduce the energy losses associated with friction, you need to make a ship as much as possible "slippery". This task seems completely fantastic, but it has a completely technological solution, tested in practice and has proven its viability.
The main idea is to surround the bottom of the ship by the cloud of gas bubbles. As a result, a thin layer of rarefied water, which has a reduced density and viscosity, will be formed around the vessel’s sides. This layer will reduce friction, in fact and making the ship more "slippery". The first apparatus used by such technology was created in the Soviet Union at the end of the 60s. – We are talking about the high-speed cavitation torpedo "Shkva". When the torpedo moves around itself a gas cavity, in other words, the torpedo is constantly surrounded by gas bubbles, significantly reduced hydrodynamic resistance – this allows it to move at a speed of 100 m / s, that is, at least 3 times faster than the fastest analogs. True, last year, Germany announced the creation of the "Super Head" Barracuda, capable of developing speeds for another 2 times higher.
It should be noted that in contrast to ordinary ships, underwater devices do not spend energy to create waves. For them, the main obstacle is the viscosity of the medium, so the cavitation cavity promises them much greater energy benefits. And yet the use of "bubble lubricant" can be quite justified and in the case of a superior heavy truck. At least, so approve scientists and shipbuilders of Russia, Europe, the USA and Japan, who discuss the prospects for this project.
To create bubbles around tankers and dry cargoers, the wicked water is not at all be heated: Instead, you can use ordinary air compressors. Yoshiaki Kadama from the Japanese National Institute of Marine Research (NMRI) offers them to position them in the nasal part of the vessel: according to its calculations, the layer of bubbles near the bottom will allow the ship to save up to 40% of fuel due to reducing water friction. At the same time, not only the cost of the vessel will increase in a regular way, but also its speed. Dutch specialist Knud Ganssen (Knud E. Hansen) DK Group shipbuilding company argues that with the help of such technology it will be possible to create a cargo ship that can cross the Atlantic for some two and a half days. Well, as they say, wait and see.