What inventions saved most lives
X-ray pictures – the world’s first diagnostic visualization. It is difficult to submit a modern hospital without such a survey. This is a fluorography to check our lungs, and pictures for diseases of the joints or fractures of bones. Detection in the early stages of tuberculosis or tumor in the lungs increases the chances of recovery. In addition, rigid x-rays can destroy cancer cells. The principles of modern radioscopy are used in security systems (scanners at airports, railway stations), and in production. In metallurgy or mechanical engineering, the uniformity of the structure scanned X-rays indicates good strength characteristics of parts. In the same way, the strength of concrete structures for monolithic housekeeping, welded seams of complex metal structures is checked.
One of the most important inventions, saving human life, was created on the basis of the opening of Wilhelm Konrad X-ray – German Physics, who worked at the University of Würzburg at the end of the 19th century. The radiation detected by them was called in his honor and later classified as electromagnetic waves in the range between ultraviolet and gamma radiation. Then it was not known that such short waves are formed with a sharp braking of accelerated electrons at the time of their collision with the anode substance atoms. The discovery was random: In 1895, Wilhelm Conrad X-ray, studying the glow in the cathode tube, suddenly saw that simultaneously with the inclusion or turning off the device begins to appear or disappear, the glow on the lying near the cardboard, covered with platinocian bary crystals. In this case, the cathode tube was wrapped in black tight paper. Including and turning off the cathode tube, the scientist concluded that it serves as a source of all-permissive radiation, which makes the sensitive crystals of platinocianist barium.
Continuing to study the X-rays, X-ray received on its equipment the first shot of a bone skeleton – hand brushes. Since then, the main elements of the usual X-ray apparatus have changed little: a cathode (X-ray) tube that feeds the device (two transformer) and a photographic film from silver compounds with halogens, which are darker with different intensity depending on the density of the translucent material and thereby form an image.
In 1917, an exponential law of weakening of radiation in substances, which showed high accuracy was applied to analyze X-rays. This led to the appearance of computer tomography (three-dimensional X-ray) – a layer-by-layer study of tissues and creating an image, taking into account the difference in the absorption of X-ray radiation by various tissue density. Inventors of tomograph – American Allan Kormak, who developed a mathematical algorithm in 1963 for a tomographic recovery of the image, and Briton Godfrey Hounsfield from Emi Ltd. Briton, using the Corma algorithm, in 1971 created the first computer X-ray tomograph of Emi-Scanner for brain scanning. In 1979, both were received by the Nobel Prize for the development of computed tomography. Tomograph conducts more accurate diagnosis of individual organs, and in particular important to determine the diseases of the brain and vessels. Many lives have been saved due to the unmistakable definition of the type of stroke using computed tomography, which is still considered an important condition for the diagnosis of such a disease.
2. Radiation therapy
The first effective method of combating cancer tumor was X-ray. Almost immediately at the opening in 1895, the scholars noticed that in parts of the body, where radiation fell, there were burns, which led to the thoughts to destroy X-ray cancellation cancer cells. The first radiotherapy session was held on January 29, 1896 in Chicago for the patient with non-cultural breast cancer. During subsequent experiments, it became known that X-ray radiation most effectively destroys the electronic structure of molecules in tissues with intense cell division, which is characteristic of cancer tumors. Therefore, this kind of radiation therapy in lung cancer is still used in 10-15% of cases leads to complete healing. However, this method has side effects, as with another most common means of dealing with cancer – chemotherapy (the introduction of drugs through blood or receiving tablets). Among them – a decrease in immunity, appetite, weight, appearance of weakness, nausea, hair loss.
The second way of radiation therapy was also found at the turn of the 19ths and 20th centuries – when opening radiation and radioactive elements. In 1896, the Frenchman Henri Becquer, experiments with Salu Uranus, opened natural radioactivity, and in 1898 Maria Sklodovskaya and Pierre Curi opened radiation polonium and radium. Then there were also marked burns in the body sites that were exposed to irradiation. But they could not dose the irradiation in those years, so little information about the successful effects of radiation on cancer cells appeared. Nevertheless, it was these experiments that became a precursor of radiobiology – science on the impact of radiation on biological objects.
In May 2013, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation (Melco) completed the assembly of a new proton therapy system for the treatment of oncological diseases, which was developed at the Center for Energy Systems of the Corporation, located in Hego Prefecture (Japan). Technology includes a number of innovative solutions, such as system generation and sewage system of high-power, high-precision positioning of the beam when applying a scanning system, combined use of irradiation technologies by scanning ray and passive dispersion using collimators on one operating table.
At the same time, an increase in the intensity of the beam of particles allowed to reduce the irradiation duration 4 times compared with previous systems, which means that the patient will spend less time in a fixed fixed state. The high-precision positioning of the beam when scanning the tumor beam increased 2 times to 5 millimeters, as well as the scanning speed – 5 times to 100 millimeters in the millisecond, which ensures fast and neat irradiation even complicated with a tumor form, with minimized damage to healthy tissues. At the moment there are two technologies for the use of proton exposure. Scanning system with a particle beam controlled by magnets irradiates point per point all tumor. The technology of passive dispersion requires the preliminary manufacture of a special filter in the form of a tumor – a collimator, when passing through which a bundle of particles is evenly irradiated with the entire tumor.
3. Artificial heart valve
This invention has become possible with the development of cardiology and the emergence of technologies for the creation of synthetic tissues, polymeric materials that are not rejected by the human body.
Millions of lives were saved by this invention. The heart of a person is four-chamber, and a disruption of at least one of the 4 valves leads to a violation of the work of the whole heart muscle. In 1957, the first artificial valve valve was presented with stainless steel details, Nylon ® fibers and TEFLON ® polytetral flap (later both names became nominated and turned into nylon and teflon). Patents for the invention of both innovative materials belong to Dupont (Nylon in 1935, Teflon in 1937).
The first implanted valve in 1958 had a sash of an organosilicone elastomer (polymer with rubber properties). Modern valves are divided into two types, depending on the material used, are mechanical and biological (for example, from the tissues of the pigs heart valves). Elements of Teflon still apply in the Mechanical Valves. Also used pyrolytic carbon, Dacron (synthetic fiber).
"We are losing it" – this phrase has many familiar figures. As a rule, simultaneously with these words show a straight line of disappeared heart rhythms on a computer monitor. After that, the dying breast is applied two similar on the iron irons and the discharge sound is heard. If cardiac rhythms do not appear on the screen, the procedure is repeated. Forced launch of the heart muscle with electric discharge saved so many people.
This device is called a "defibrillator" – from the opposite heart when muscular cuts of different parts occur abnormally arrhythmic.
With strong fibrillation, the heart stops. This phenomenon was the first to study Jean-Louis Preview and Frederick Batelli, who in 1899 published the results of their research on stopping heart abbreviations in dogs after shocking.
In the 1930s, in different countries, the possibility of electrostroopy defibrillation in animals – dogs, cats, frogs. By 1956, Paul Zoll conducted the first successful defibrillation with an alternating current with a voltage of 110 volts with an operation on an open heart of a person. Since 1960, autonomous defibrillators have been created in several countries. The effectiveness of these devices is noted when exposed to an instantaneous electrical pulse in a splice of a second with a voltage of 1500 – 2500 volts to the nude heart during operations and up to 7000 volts with an unbroken chest.
Vascular diseases along with heart diseases remain among the most dangerous and frequent in the world. Lifeline lifestyle, fast food, stress – and is already disturbed by the normal metabolism, the clearance of vessels changes pathologically. This leads to ischemic heart disease, heart attack. Save a person in this situation can only stent – artificial element of a cylindrical form. It is introduced, as a rule, through a femoral artery on a plastic balloon catheter to the vessel narrowing. Surgeon visually observes the stent movement on the X-ray screen. When the surrounding section of the vessel is reached, the surgeon activates the gas supply to the cylinder, on which the stent is fixed – swollen, the cylinder presses it into the wall of the vessel. Adjustable the required lumen of the stent vessel due to a certain pressure in the cylinder. After that, the gas is pumped out, but the stent retains the specified lumen.
Cardiac surgeons have long discussed the idea of replacing the affected area of the vessel, but the complexity was in the right selection of the materials of the stent and in the technology of his lusion. Finally in 1986, Jacques Puel and Ulrich Zigvart first implanted a patient’s stent in France. The first stents had a view of a pure metal tube. Now they can be mesh, in the form of rings and other shape. For their manufacture, various materials are applied, there are stents that distinguish medicines to reduce the risk of thrombov. The invention and the implantation of the stent saved millions of lives. Suffice it to say that so far due to the late diagnosis of coronary heart disease in the world, about 7 million people die every year.
6. Safety belt
This important element of transport security did not immediately become mandatory for the driver with a passenger in the car and for the pilot on the plane. The era of aeronautics and automotive construction began with the invention of the internal combustion engine at the beginning of the 19th century. I do not know exactly who first offered to use the seat belt. It is believed that it was the English inventor Sir George Kale, who worked at the time over the creation of aircraft. It was the usual belt around the waist, as in the passenger aircraft chairs. With the advent of the first aircraft and self-deviating crews, it became clear: with a sharp maneuver or accident, the driver and pilot on inertia fly out from the seats, which leads to serious injury or death. Therefore, seat belts were relevant and at that time.
With the beginning of industrial production of cars at the end of the 19th century, accidents. One of the creators of the French automotive industry Louis Renault proposed in 1903 a five-point seat belt, which is now installed in children’s car seats or racing cars. But mandatory seat belts first became in aviation – in the early 1930s. And the first country in which the belt installation has become mandatory in the production of cars, in 1957 it turned out to be Sweden. For comparison: the second in the world became France only in 1970. In those times, a single standard did not exist and various types of belts were installed – femoral, waist, five-point.
Former airliner Niels Bolin, in 1958 he worked as a security specialist in a car company, offered a universal three-point security belt – over the shoulder to the thigh. After a year, the dots on the mannequins was chosen exactly this option, since it best kept a person with accidents and easily fastened with one hand. Since then, its more often used in industrial car production. However, until 1980 in the world there was no single standard and three-point straps were installed only on the front chairs of cars.
History did not save the names of the inventors of the first airbags, according to some sources, the harbingers of such devices were experimentally mounted on airplanes in the 1930-1940s. The frequent problem of aviation of those years is to bone due to errors when landing or irregular airfields, when the plane nose stumbled into the ground, followed by tipping the tail forward. Often, pilots died in such cases from hitting heads about the sighting frame or dashboard. But massively use this invention in aviation did not become – war began, and more important problems arose to protect pilots and combat aircraft. And the construction of modern airfields and new management and security systems in airplanes as a whole made the installation of airbags irrelevant. Mention of the first patents for automotive airbags belong to 1951, when American John Hetrik and German Walter Linderer simultaneously registered its inventions. The pillow was squeezed with compressed gas, and there were options when the driver manually activated the device if I saw that the collision was inevitable.
Japanese engineer Yasuzoburo Cobori in 1963 suggested using a gas sickness, which pillow pillow, triggered from impact. But nevertheless reliability of such a device was insufficient for high security. An American Allen Brid played a huge role in improving this technology – he in 1967 introduced a ball sensor to determine the moment of collision.
And in 1971 there was a first airbag for mass production, and since the 1980s, almost all of the leading automakers of Europe and the United States began its installation when assembling serial machines. Soon the equipment of the car with such a security element has become mandatory.
Nowadays, radar is the detection of an object through the reflection of electromagnetic waves reflected – is still relevant. Air traffic control of dispatchers and today are carried out using radar and satellite navigation. Radar, this santov navigation system, equipped with modern aircraft – as an alternative orientation method. But in this case, the pilots request radar coordinates from dispatchers, and then calculate the parameters of its course – the rate of demolition, the distance remaining to the goal of the route. And still in such aircraft systems there is a Doppler Travel Speed Sensor and Demolition Corner (DISS). Development of the radar became possible due to the opening of several phenomena. First, in 1887, the German physicist Heinrich Hertz opened electromagnetic waves and learned to generate them. Also, noticed that different objects absorb differently and reflect electromagnetic waves. For example, metals very well reflect radio waves.
Secondly, the effect of Christian Doppler helped, which in the middle of the 19th century noticed that the frequency of the radiation wave depends on the speed and direction of the source of the waves. True, he experimented with light and sound, but they also have wave properties, so the Doppler effect is applicable to electromagnetic waves. For example, if the source of radio waves (sound, light) is approaching the receiver, then its frequency is growing, and if removed – drops. The locator sends a radio wave with a given frequency and known speed (light speed), when they are reflected from the moving object, only the frequency changes, since the speed of electromagnetic waves is constant. It remains to solve an easy task: the time of passing the signal there – back and its speed is known only to determine the coordinates of the object reflecting the signal.
The idea of creating a radar was patented in 1905 by Christian Hyulsmeyer in Germany. But for accurate object detection, there were enough powerful wave transmitters and their receivers. It took the development of a number of devices for creating a locator: Magnetron, clusterone, lamps of the running wave, waveguides, amplifier and generator lamps were created.
The first patent for the creation of a radar station received Scottish physicist Robert Watson Watt in 1934. And in February 1935 he showed the effect of the first collected radar.
On the ships, the radar began to be installed in the late 1930s, and during the war years they began to use them on land for the detection of enemy aircraft. In the early 1940s, the British and Americans developed an onboard radar for aircraft.
The principle of radar is laid in the system warning system of aircraft collision in the air (Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System, TCAS), which saved thousands of lives. This system is installed in all modern aircraft to reduce the risk of aircraft collision. Each aircraft is equipped with a transponder – transceiver sensor. Such a device constantly sends its radio signals and in response can receive a signal from a dangerous approximation of an aircraft. The signal contains coordinates and identification data about the object. With a dangerous convergence of TCAS gives a beep, simultaneously flashes the light indication. The system also issues a recommendation, what maneuver must be made. In addition, the principle of radar is laid in uniform sensors. Sensor (bipper, transceiver) or reflective plate can be attached to clothing and operate in signal radiation mode. In the event of a person’s hit by an avalanche, the survivors switches to the signal search mode. When approaching the intensity of sound or light indication that has fallen into avalanche, it increases – the chances of finding the victim significantly increase.
The forerunner of this invention was knightly lats – with the appearance in Europe in the 14th century of firearms, it became clear that the punching force of the bullet depends on the thickness of the lat and the shooting range. From this point on, the racing of arms and protection begins, but the slaughter power of firearms grew faster than the effectiveness of bullets. Complete protection of the soldier in this case was difficult to ensure without prejudice to his mobility. Heavy lats with a large thickness of metal plates are difficult to wear in battle, it can lead to the opposite effect – to increase the vulnerability of the soldier. In addition, the manufacture of such lats was time consuming, piece. Therefore, the mass of their use refused. At the end of the 17th century, individual divisions of heavy cavalry were created – Kirassir. First, the kraces were made of wrought iron, and then from the tempered steel. The weight of such an individual protection could exceed 20 kilograms. But with the advent of rod weapons, the use of such first army body armor became ineffective. The kings in the army of different countries have ceased to be applied after the First World War. In the period of World War II, personal armor was sometimes used in combat aircraft.
For the first time massive army body armor used US troops in the Korean campaign 1950-1953. Then the soldiers more often dressed from fragments of garnet, shells and airbabes. Shards had a small kinetic energy, but left heavy ripped wounds. Therefore, in the US, it was decided to create a body armor to protect against fragments. By the time, new types of synthetic high-strength fabric were developed – ballistic nylon (it is also nylon T-728). Reinforced layers of such fabric allowed to create in 1951 the first standard army armored vest weighing up to 3.5 kilograms for mass application. The starting party reached 30 thousand sets and fully defended the entire US military contingent in Korea.
In 1952, a second type of body armor was released in the USA, enhanced by aluminum plates. Then a waterproof case appeared on the body armor, since it became noticeable to reduce the protective properties during wetting. Until the 1970s, US military engineers tried to increase the number of layers from Nylon T-728) – up to 12-15, but in compliance with the condition so that the standard army body armor weighed not more than 4 kilograms.
Everything has changed with the invention in 1964, Kevlar ® fiber (again, the trademark has become a nine – Kevlarom eventually). Industrial production of this high strength fabric began since 1970. Until now, Kevlar around the world remains one of the main components of the body armor, protective helmets for military and law enforcement services.
Development of the chemical and nuclear industry, electric power industry, and at the same time the growing danger of man-made accidents became an incentive to create a special form that protects a person from aggressive media. Creating modern workwear to eliminate radiation or chemical infection, extinguishing fires requires good knowledge of physics and chemistry, the development of complex technologies and long-term tests. New fabrics and materials made it possible to achieve significant success in this area.
But as the experience of Russia, electrician – no less dangerous profession than the liquidator of man-made accidents. Therefore, for this profession special clothing was also created, able to save in critical situations. The effectiveness of such equipment proved the case of the electrician "ComIesnergo" Alexey Turbine. Jacket and pants, blackened in several places, but also not focused by electrodes, saved the electrician. In April 2010, Alexey Turbin, when conducting switches, accidentally raised current relays of two phases and fell under the electric arc. It was saved by a heat-resistant helmet with a protective screen and overalls, which was created with the use of technologies and meta-aramid Nomex company DuPont, which has extensive experience in the production of specialties and developing earlier ballistic nylon and kevlar. The electrician generally could get rid of a light fright if he had not forgotten to put on a heat-resistant grateman, but as a result, the flame of the arc fell under the protective visor, and the turbines got burns of the lower part of the face.
This is not the only case when overalls saves the lives of electricians in Russia. In August 2008, when performing measurements on a transformer substation, Sergei Misharin also fell under the electric arc, but then she could not burn a suit, protected Nomex. This workwear is gratefully recalls the Electrician Andrei Krasnov: In April 2011, he also hit the direct impact of an electric arc, but survived.