What is a hangover from the point of view of science and how to treat him

Not so long ago, there was an opinion that ethanol – the metabolite’s usual for us (participant of metabolism) and that an "endogenous" ethanol is produced in the body, for the disposal of which there are special enzymatic systems. But this statement is outdated: no biochemical reaction was found to be found in the internal environment of the body with the formation of ethyl alcohol. The key value here has a distinction between the internal and external environment of the body.

Internal environment hidden for various barriers. Based on this logic, the intestinal lumen is an external environment. It is there that the symbilation bacteria live there, which are just able to produce ethanol using vegetable raw materials coming with food. Microbial moonshine volumes are not impressive: only about 3 g per day. True, there are such mushrooms, sugaromycetes (Saccharomyces Cerevisiae), here they have the production of ethyl alcohol put on stream. A few cases of "self-evincocation syndrome" were described when people were permanently held in a state of tops, without understanding why this happens. To cure them was managed by a course of specialized antifungal drugs and a diet with a minimum content of carbohydrates.

Ethanol does not apply to vital substances. It is quite possible to live life safely, without contacting alcohol at all. But the presence of a separate system for neutralizing the ethyl alcohol says that not all of our ancestors adhered to "dry" tactics.

Why do you need ethanol

First Cause – Food: Alcohol fermentation – one of the most ancient ways to preserve nutrients enclosed in plants. As much more, he was peeped in nature, modified and attached to the case of the Purpose of mankind. The second reason is recreational: consumption in food at first boiling fruit, and then specially cooked drinks gave some interesting effects. For example, the attractiveness of the opposite sex sharply increased. The explanation was found now in our time: most people consider beautiful symmetrical and correct features of the face, and alcohol dulls the ability to recognize asymmetry.

Another pleasant consequence – euphoria, relaxation, extension from problems, as well as the most present physiological pleasure. It did not cost without a remuneration system, it is a mesolimbic path, a totality of neurons, producing dopamine to fix this or that evolutionarily correct action. The sweet – well done, provided himself with deficient energy, get a neurotransmitter of pleasure. Engaged in sex – well done, concerned about the continuation of the kind, wring for another dose. Psychoactive substances, alcohol, can, know how to raise the level of dopamine without any intermediaries like exercise in search of food or partner. The brain "evaluates" and enshrines as the most preferred way to obtain positive emotions. That is why some people have alcoholic beverages first become indispensable satellites of food and sex, and then gradually displacing them, that is, psychological dependence is formed, and then physical (metabolism perestroika). But for those who have the frontal shares are well developed, the level of control over themselves is sufficient and there are no genetic "surprises" in the form of a predisposition to alcoholization, ethanol for a long time, almost all life, can remain only in the way "relax a little".

but on the other hand

However, the use of even moderate doses of ethanol has negative consequences. One of the main things is a hangover. This word designate two completely different states.

First, there is an alcohol abstineent syndrome (AAS) – the most natural ethanol break. Alcohol – drug, causing both psychological and physical dependence. If, with alcoholism formed, the level of ethyl alcohol in the body falls below the critical mark, it occurs with an extremely unpleasant state, from which you can get rid of two ways: either to drink, or endure. If under the pressure of symptoms of breaking, a person chooses the first option, formed by the feed, from which an alcoholic cannot always get out of himself. Secondly, there are Weisalgia, which occurs only in non-alcohologists. This is essentially poisoning with ethanol metabolite and its products (metabolites).

Ethanol itself is a powerful reducing agent, it reduces the number of oxidized over +, universal carriers of electrons in biochemical reactions. This reduces the oxidative potential of the cell and leads to a slowdown in the synthesis of glucose and a decrease in its blood level (hypoglycemia), the accumulation of lactic acid and, as a result, the displacement of PH into the acidic side (acidosis), an increase in the synthesis of fatty acids and the seizure of fat cells of the liver (reversibly only In the episodic consumption of alcohol, when moving to a professional league leads to the development of alcohol liver fatty), as well as to slowing the protein exchange. In addition, Ethanol suppresses the release of vasopressin hormone from the pituitary gland, as a result of sodium salt, potassium, glucose and water take place renal tubules without reverse absorption (reabsorption) and rushed with straight to the bladder. That is, alcohol acts as not the most sparing diuretic, massively withdrawing extremely necessary for the livelihoods of the body. The poisoning of the main metabolite of ethanol – acetaldehyde: It expands the vessels of the cavity of the skull and face, causes headache, nausea, vomiting, trembling, tremor, lomotics in muscles and joints.

What is a hangover from the point of view of science and how to treat him

Another factor is the toxic effects of by-metabolites from the sadly famous "Suggest oils". Under this term hidden substances formed during the manufacture of alcoholic beverage. These are mainly about different alcohols (methanol, 1-propanol, isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol), ether (ethyl acetate) and aldehydes (acetic). Than a handful of drink, the more in it "Sivuhi". Masters and raw materials: if there are many pectins (apples, pears, sugar beets, sunflower), a tangible amount of methanol will be obtained at the exit, the deadly dose of which is only about 50 ml. In industrial production, the risk of getting a blow from this direction is not as large, there are enzymatic treatment technologies that allow minimizing the content of by-products.

We will add here microsomal oxidation products (and it is necessarily incorporated if there is too much ethanol in the body), concomitant factors affecting the portability of alcohol (stress, fatigue, lack of sleep, the cycle phase in women, mood and many others).

ADH and Aldh enzymes are different. Seven variations of ADH are known, two of its variations are possible: "slow" ("European"), processing an average of 110 mg of ethanol by 1 kg of body weight per hour, and "fast" ("Mongoloid") – about 130 mg. In people with the first version of ADH, the state of intoxication is held longer, in the second case it turns faster into the stage of unpleasant consequences. Aldh also features two types: ALDH1, cytosol, with small bandwidth, as well as Aldh2, mitochondrial, main working variety of enzyme. In some people, due to mutation in one of the loci, the 12th chromosome Aldh2 is synthesized incorrectly and completely loses its enzymatic activity. At the owner of both active ALDH, if there is 0.5 ‰ ethanol in the blood, the concentration of acetaldehyde will not exceed 2 μmol / l, and if AldH2 is inactive, then it can reach 35 μmol / l.

Tools from Bodun

In 2005, the British Medical Journal was published by metaanalysis (research research) on antiplectric agents. It turned out that only eight work criteria were more or less responded, in which the drawbrush medicinal (cucumber grass) was studied, the artichoke of the spiny (sowing), cactus emphasis, a mixture of dry yeast and polyvitamins, a tropistron (anti-ansulistic drug), propranolol (non-selective β- adrenoblocator), crowdamic acid (Nonteroid anti-inflammatory drug) and fructose with glucose. A reliable effect was observed only in three. When checking the effectiveness of γ-linolenic acid from the drug rack, a significant reduction in both the overall gravity of the wagon syndrome and individual signs are identified: headache and fatigue – compared with placebo. A mixture of dry yeast and polyvitamins reduced the symptoms of discomfort and anxiety. Of the four pharmaceuticals (tropisters, propranolol, crowdenamic acid and fructose / glucose), only crowdamic acid worked, reduced hanging symptoms such as headache, nausea, vomiting, thirst, dry mouth, tremor and irritability, compared with placebo. Please note: the hangover is not "cured", only some of its symptoms decreased, that is, the funds were triggered as symptomatic therapy. However, a key concept for any scientific fact – reproducibility. But with this just problems. In 2015, at the annual conference of the European College of Neuropsychormakology, it was told about an attempt to apply the same eight funds on volunteer students. In all cases, the effect was at the level of placebo.

What is a hangover from the point of view of science and how to treat him

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