What is "Ja Rastafaray": the mystery of Ethiopian names
In his column, the editor of the magazine "Popular Mechanics" Oleg Makarov talks about where "Ja Rastafarai" came from and how the Ethiopian names are arranged in general. Internet edition expresses gratitude for the interesting material.
The oldest Ethiopian state – Aksum – became one of the first in the world officially adopted Christianity. It happened in IV in our era, 600 years before the baptism of Russia. Earlier in Europe as Abyssinia, Ethiopia – the only African country that created a large number of literary monuments based on his own writing. Only the Ethiopian army (and only to him in all Black Africa) once managed to defeat the European Army – the Italians were defeated in the Battle of Atuua in 1896. And finally, Ethiopia escaped the fate of all his neighbors on the continent and did not become a foreign colony, except for the short-term occupation in 1935-41 the same Italians.
The state language of Ethiopia is not Ethiopian, as it would be possible to think, and Amharic is a representative of the southern branch of Semitic languages, which is in remote relationship with Arabic, Hebrew, modern Assyrian (Aramaic) and T.D. And, interestingly, Amharic names of their own almost all "speaking", having in the language direct meaning, in contrast, for example, from European names, the initial meaning of which is almost lost. Who, for example, accurately remembers that in which language means the names "Irina" or "Sergey"? In Ethiopia, everything is not the case – Amharic names are translated. Giving name to his chad, parents can wish the male fellow by a big boss career, calling him, say, "Muluget" (ሙሉጌታ) – "Full Mr." ("Full" not in the sense of the complex), and daughters wish everyone admiration, giving her the name "Amakcalech (አማከለች) – literally "gathered around him". By the way, the only one seen by the author Ethiopka with the same name was truly very good and attracted a lot of fans.
From here smoothly back to the headline. So what is "Jah Rastafarai" (Jah Rastafari), the expression, known as the cry of Rastafarians – representatives of the syncretic religion born in Jamaica. We will not deeply go into the subtleties of this creed, which is notorically known to the romantization of the use of prohibited substances, let us say only what is related to our topic. Creators of Rastafarianism, descendants of brought to the Caribbean Islands of African slaves, reading the Bible, decided that they deserved their own Messiah – and to them the God of the Bible Yahweh (JAH) should appear in the image of a dark-skinned ruler. On the role of the Messiah and next after Christ, the embodiment of God was appointed by the last in the history of the country, Emperor Hilee-Selussie (ኃይለ). Perhaps the role in the choice was played by the oldest Christian tradition of Ethiopia, the legend about the origin of the dynasty from the very king of Solomon, as well as the reputation of the African country that did not conquer the white man. It was from such an unusual edge black jean.
I must say that, before the official entry into the throne, Hail-Selussie was the actual co-gerger of Ethiopia along with the only woman in the history of the imperial throne, his cousin to hesitate (ዘውዲቱ), which means "she – crown". Quite a name for such a title! The future of Emperor High-Seliassy was then the races of Tefari Mason (ራስ ተፈሪ መኮንን). The main meaning of the word "races" – "Head", but in Abyssinia in those days it was so called the highest title for nobility, something like Prince or Duke. "Tefari" – a personal name meaning "Grozny". The next word "Maunchon" is translated into our as an Officer. But what is it? Surname? Second name? No – patronymic. The full name of Ethiopa consists of two parts: the first is a personal name, the second is the name of the Father. And all. Name Nova. Something similar we see from Icelanders who also cost without surnames. However, the patronymic of these strange Scandinavians consist not only from the name of the Father, but also from the pointer of Paul – Dottir (daughter) or sleep (son). In general, the father of Rasa Tafferi was called Maundest.
On a distant Jamaica, apparently, not very conceived. Over where the name is there, where the title, and called your living god Ja Rastafaray. It turned out something like "Princehandrey". Why not raefarry? Due to some features of the transmission of ambrian sounds in English and because of the tradition of reading I at the end of the word as "ah".
Having entered the throne, the "Grozny" became the emperor "The Power of Trinity". That is what is translated into our his throne name. The Emperor’s patronymic was no longer relied. The name consists, as we see, of two parts "Hail" (ኃይል) – "Power" and "Sollas" (ሥላሴ) – "Trinity". Option "Selection" came to us through Western European languages. Here it is necessary to make a little refinement. Some of the names that we were originally called Amharian, more correctly called Ethiopian, because they are built from words and based on the designs of an ancient language of Geyz. New Semitic languages of Ethiopia developed from GEZ (not only Amharic), medieval Ethiopian historical chronicles, the lives of the Saints, theological works and even poetic texts were written on the GEZ. So the Hilee-Selassiye type attractive design is understandable to any amicant carrier, but, in fact, refers to the classic ancient language. Examples of such type names can be given a lot.
In 1974, the young Ethiopian military overthrew the elderly Emperor, and Lieutenant Colonel Mengist Hilee-Mariam became one of the leaders of the revolution (later actually dictator of the country) (መንግስቱ ኃይለ). The name "Mengista / Mayenst" means "his power, his state". "Hayle-Mariam" – patronymic – consists of an already familiar word "Hail", that is, "power", and the name of the Virgin Mary in his original biblical form. "Power of St. Mary ", it became. Mengist’s regime, proclaiming a course for socialism, was very popular in the USSR, and Soviet journalists, not very dealt with the subtleties of Ethiopian onomastics, reported news about "Comrade Mariam", not even suspecting what is called African Macho in the uniform afternoon, and at the same time Women’s name.
In addition to the "power", other words from the language of Geyz are popular. For example, "GBR" (ገብር) – "Slave". For us it seems strange, but the words "slave" in Ethiopian names are often used. In the same sense, as in our expression "Slave of God", that is, a faithful servant, a truly believer and t.NS. From here there are such names as "Gabrasyllase / Gebre-Seliassy" (ገብረ ሥላሴ). Yes, yes, you already understood it means "Slave Trinity". And there is still "Gabre-Masquel" (ገብረ መስቀል) – "Slave Cross" and even "Gabre-Hyouot" (ገብረ ሕይወት) – "Slave of Life".
And at the end of the funny. In the comedy series "Kitchen" and different spin-offs of the hero of the our actor Grigory Siyatvindy name is Mikhail Jackovich Gesbresuelissie. It is implied, it is likely that the "Gebriesuelissie" is a surname. But. how do we remember the epiopes no surnames. Maybe Pope Hero called Jack Gesbelissie? Something did not have to meet Ethiopians with Anglo-Saxon names, but anything happens. But then Gebriesuelissie is the name of the grandfather Mikhail Jackovich! Arguing seriously about actual inaccuracies in the entertainment cinema, of course, ridiculous. But when we look at the Hollywood films, where the ours are incurred names and non-existent names, we will remember that we are also capable of much. And yes, if you meet Ethiopku, which is called, say, Amakkalech Harrest-Yesus, do not hurry to contact her "Mrs. Jesus", and better remember what you just read.