What is a "protected laptop"? Extreme Test Drive

Servers and laptops, laptops and tablets that we are accustomed to enjoy – all items greenhouses created for a narrow comfort range. Their boards are easily overheated, their hard drives quickly fail, the contacts do not tolerate moisture and dust, and about the fall at least from the height of human growth is better and not to think. Ensure all this is capable of only special protected computers that are resistant to adverse environmental factors. They are heavy, expensive and not too convenient in use. But they work under torrential rain and on ice, in the hot sand of the desert, in a shaking on the tundra all-terrain vehicles – where people work.

Often they are called industrial, although there are not only production enterprises among the main users of protected electronics. Computers capable of working in extreme conditions are required by sailors and miners, geological explorations and oil miners, freight and builders, police, rescuers, and, of course, military. Each situation has its own protection requirements, and for each task, specialized equipment is selected separately: 100% and universally protected computers capable of incuring any life, there is no.

Dust and moisture protection: IP65. Temperature: from -50 to + 55 ° C (when using protection elements). Vibration: up to 6 g. Multiple strikes: Up to 15 g. Single blow: up to 120 g.
Pressure: from 140 to 1400 mm RT. Art. Acoustic noise: up to 150 dB (50 Hz – 100 kHz).
Solar radiation: to 1120 W / m ^ 2. Ultraviolet: to 68 W / m ^ 2.
resistant salt spray (5% salt) ineyu and mildew fungi, chemically aggressive media, the effects of electromagnetic fields.

The police "tablets" to withstand rain, vibration, drop and generally rude treatment, usually in the profession. Laptop to work on an offshore production platform must be protected from salt spray and strong temperature differences. The military needed all at once. "There was an incident – our forgotten laptop on the runway, and it drove a tanker loaded with fuel for aircraft. It is not that the computer does not hurt at all, but the damage did not look too great. He even brought us a request "Repair a cracked housing", – told us the creators of protected computers from NGOs "TS-SKN". – Of course, under the multi-torrent laptop broke, but the data on the hard disk remained in preservation ".

Protected smartphones and laptops are also looking at the general public, the tired of replacing the broken screens and the keyboard flooded. Manufacturers persistently react to these requests, and many of them have mastered the production of technology with a particular degree of security. Among modern models, you can pay attention to Dell Latitude 14 Rugged Extreme, Panasonic Toughbook 31 and American Classic – Getac X500. However, all such laptops refer to the category "conditionally protected" and on protected seriously are not more similar than cars – "PARCATHERS" – for SUVs and all-terrain vehicles.

Standard troubles

A truly protected technique should withstand much more and pass certification according to adopted standards – international IEC 60529 and our . The military impose their requirements, and in the USA they are focused on the MIL-STD-810, developed by the Ministry of Defense of the country, and in Russia use their own GOST RV 20.39.304-98 "Equipment, devices, devices and equipment of military purposes. Requirement requirements for external affecting factors ". In both cases, standards formalize several dozen species of harmful effects that must withstand appliances. It is a corrosion-hazardous salt fog, and aggressive gases, snow load and mechanical impact, temperature and pressure drops, long-lasting vibrations and even mold fungi.

In the usual life of the salt fog and mold – it is still exotic, and the most common hazards for computers remain banal dust and moisture. Protection of technology from these impacts is certified separately, in the framework of the international and intersectoral classification of IP (Ingrus Protection Rating – "The degree of protection of the shell"). Tests are carried out in accordance with IEC 60529 standards and, and according to the results, the product receives the IPHX code where x can be replaced with numbers. In the first position (with a value from 0 to 6), they indicate the protection against penetration of foreign objects, whether thumbs, screwdrivers, wires, sand or dust. The digit in the second position (value from 0 to 8) speaks of water protection, up to complete impermeability. Only in Germany, DIN 40050-9 is adopted in Germany, in which the indicator of waterproof may reach up to 9, – this means that the product is able to carry a special sink of hot water jets under high pressure.

Household street lamps usually have an IP23 class – they are protected from fingers and objects of about the same dimensions (IP2x), as well as from rain, pouring vertically or at an angle of up to 60 degrees (IPX3). Home outlet can be protected IP22. Real protected computer equipment rises to IP65, and sometimes above. "We have, of course, a ultrasachable computer "Watch" with IP68, operating at temperatures from -50 to + 60 ° C. But he weighs around Pad, kilograms 16, – they say in NGOs "TS-SKN". – the laptop will not do so. Creating such equipment is always a compromise search between performance characteristics, versatility, cost, convenience – and actually protected.

Fire, water and mold

Ultra-prison laptop TS Strong @ Master 7020T, the one for which the tanker drove, boasts the IP65 index. In other words, it is completely dustproof (IP6X) and continues to work even when the jet of water watered it from different directions (IPX5). Exhibition stands of NGO "TS-SKN" invariably decorate three aquarium, only instead of fish and water in them you can see such persistent laptops. One of them lies in the sand that continuously takes the fan at temperatures to + 50 ° C. The second zaros in the fuck and snow like an old freezer. The third – as if under the tropical shower: water droplets flow across the screen, accumulate on the keyboard. All three laptops are included – and they work that the visitors make a big impression.

Approximately in such dust chambers are carried out and testing protected equipment. Only instead of sand GOST requires the use of special types of powders, corresponding dust with different conductive and abrasive properties for tests. It can be a non-abroad and non-abrasive talc with particle sizes within 75 microns – 2 kg per each cubic meter of the camera – or non-abrasive conducting portland cement powder. A similar way to check the computer and for resistance to moisture. For example, to obtain the IPX5 security class, it is placed in the chamber and withstands at least three minutes of watering with a small branded from a distance of 2.5-3 m, with water consumption of 12.5 l / min.

What is

In closed cameras, experiencing techniques and resistance to aggressive gases – such as ozone, hydrogen sulfide and multicomponent "acid" mixture, including sulfur oxides, nitrogen and ammonia. Even the stability of the computer to molding microorganisms is specially tested, for which the laptop is subjected to a rather perverted procedure. It is covered with mushrooms – Aspergillia, Trita – Penicillia, and DR. A month later, in wonderful mold development (29 ° C, humidity of more than 90%), the computer should turn on and operate.

A separate task is the impact. It distinguishes single blows – those that the computer is still able to withstand, but begins to collapse – and multiple, not reaching the devastating level. Single need to withstand at least three, multiple – thousands. A special type of load is a vibration that knocks the movement of the hard disk head. Protected drives use the same reception as automotive CD players, reading additional amounts of information in advance, with the absorption – in buffer memory, from where it can be removed when shaking. The technique is tested for resistance to long-term vibration at different frequencies, from 5 to 500 Hz, which are found when used in "rough" transport, from all-terrain vehicles to armored vehicles.

Like in a submarine

The creators of protected laptops use an approach borrowed from submarine designers: a durable case is divided into a number of internal impermeable compartments, the slots between which are thoroughly sealed. As a modern ship will not leave at the bottom upon receipt of the holes in one of the compartments of its housing, and the protected computer, with a disruption of the tightness of one of the parts, can save performance, and most importantly – data. For removable components – rechargeable battery, CD / DVD reader, drives – Sometimes separate compartments are provided. This allows you to replace them in the field, without fear that dust or moisture will penetrate the motherboard and other "vital organs" laptop.

The housing of the magnesium alloy (for example, the AZ91D brand) provides a certain level of protection against external electromagnetic radiation, and rubber shock absorbers on the corners soften the blows and wear. Rubber plugs are provided for both external connectors, although not for all protected laptops are vital. For example, in the same TS Strong @ Master 7020t, the connectors themselves are sealed, so even without plugs it demonstrates IP65 level security. "The elastic struts when closing the compartment are additionally pressed and block the connectors, so that they do not pop up when vibrations," engineers add.

In the best samples of protected technology there are no moving mechanical parts, easily susceptible to breakage. Instead of a rotating hard disk, solid-state SSD drives are almost universally used, and instead of conventional capacitive touch screens for smartphones – more resistant resistive. Such displays are familiar to us thanks to the payment terminals: installed on the street, they also need reliable screens carrying and moisture, and temperature differences. Covers the screen tempered borosilicate glass, calmly withstanding a drop of 100 gram girks from a height of 1 m. All internal parts and boards are securely fixed in their places, shielded from radiation with metallized gaskets and covered with a hermetic lacquer film. Separate attention is paid to the regulation of the operating temperature. "Of course, special electronic components are used on the basis of semiconductors operating in a large temperature range, they say in NGOs "TS-SKN", – But besides, cooling is thought out. ". Conventional fans and coolers are too unreliable, so their role is usually performing an air radiator or a closed liquid cooling system tube system.

Special approaches requires low operating temperature. First of all, it concerns the display matrix: liquid crystals in the frost elementary freeze, and the entire screen fills with milk-white color. Therefore, additional heating is installed for the screens of such laptops, as for hard drives. "Do not think that the ultra-cultured computer will endure everything. Agrowing the factors of a nuclear explosion or a blow of electromagnetic weapons, of course, will bring it out of order, they say NGO developers "TS-SKN". – But in such conditions you hardly need a laptop. But where you can work in principle, such equipment will work.

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